Sindhi Essays In Sindhi Language In India

Sindhi
سنڌي / सिन्धी / / ਸਿੰਧੀ

"Sindhi" in Nastaʿlīq

Native toSindh
RegionSouth Asia
EthnicitySindhis

Native speakers

25 million (2007)[1]

Language family

Writing system

Perso-Arabic script, Devanagari, Khudabadi, Laṇḍā, Gurmukhi[2]
Official status

Official language in

 Pakistan (Sindh)[3][4][5]
 India
Regulated bySindhi Language Authority (Pakistan),
National Council For Promotion Of Sindhi Language (India)
Language codes
ISO 639-1
ISO 639-2
ISO 639-3Variously:
 – Sindhi
 – Lasi
 – Sindhi Bhil
Glottolog  Sindhi[6]
  Sindhi Bhil[7]
  Lasi[8]
Linguasphere
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Sindhi[9] (سنڌي‎, सिन्धी, , ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people. It is the official language of the Pakistani province of Sindh.[10][11][12] In India, Sindhi is one of the scheduled languages officially recognized by the federal government.

Most Sindhi speakers are concentrated in Pakistan in the Sindh province, and in India, the Kutch region of the state of Gujarat and in the Ulhasnagar region of the state of Maharashtra. The remaining speakers in India are composed of the Sindhi Hindus who migrated from Sindh, which became a part of Pakistan and settled in India after the independence of Pakistan in 1947 and the Sindhi diaspora worldwide. Sindhi language is spoken in Sindh, Balochistan and Punjab provinces of Pakistan as well as the states of Rajasthan, Punjab and Gujarat in India as well as immigrant communities in Hong Kong, Oman, Indonesia, Singapore, UAE, UK and the United States.[13]

Contemporary status[edit]

The Sindhi language and other native languages of Pakistan are struggling to be officially given the status of national language in Pakistan. Before the inception of Pakistan, Sindhi was the national language of Sindh.[14][15][16][17] There are many Sindhi language television channels broadcasting in Pakistan such as KTN, Sindh TV, Awaz Television Network, Mehran TV and Dharti TV. Besides this, Indian television Doordarshan have been asked by the Indian court to start a news channel for Hindu Sindhis of India.[18][19]

Sindhi Computing[edit]

Sindhi Computing is the term used for the Software developed for the Sindhi language, these software are intended for the users to read, write and learn Sindhi language online or offline.[20]

Sindhi language Software[edit]

Sindhi language software such as Sindhi language keyboards have been developed for the Windows OS, Android smartphones. Various other online websites provide Sindhi keyboard such as (Keymanweb.org),[21][22] M.B Sindhi keyboard by Majid Bhurgri. A software have been developed by the Sindhi Language Authority which will end the barrier between the Arabic-Sindhi script or Perso-Sindhi script and Devanagari Sindhi script; such software have also been developed by the Punjabi researchers at Punjabi University and Manchester University for the Sindhi.[23][24]

Etymology[edit]

Main article: History of Sindh

The name "Sindhi" is derived from Sindhu, the local name of the Indus River.[25]

Significance[edit]

See also: Sindhi literature and Sindhi poetry

When Sindh was occupied by British army and was annexed with Bombay, governor of the province Sir George Clerk ordered to make Sindhi the official language in the province in 1848. Sir Bartle Frere, the then commissioner of Sindh, issued orders on August 29, 1857 advising civil servants in Sindh to qualify examination in Sindhi. He also ordered Sindhi to be used in all official communication. Seven-grade education system commonly known as Sindhi-Final was introduced in Sindh. Sindhi Final was made a prerequisite for employment in revenue, police and education departments.[26]

History[edit]

Like other languages of this family, Sindhi has passed through Old Indo-Aryan (Sanskrit) and Middle Indo-Aryan (Pali, secondary Prakrits, and Apabhramsha) stages of growth, and it entered the New Indo-Aryan stage around the 10th century CE.[27][28]

In the year 1868, the Bombay Presidency assigned Narayan Jagannath Vaidya to replace the Abjad used in Sindhi, with the Khudabadi script. The script was decreed a standard script by the Bombay Presidency thus inciting anarchy in the Muslim majority region. A powerful unrest followed, after which Twelve Martial Laws were imposed by the British authorities.[29]

According to Islamic Sindhi tradition, the first translation of the Quran into Sindhi was completed in the year 883 CE / 270 AH in Mansura, Sindh. The first extensive Sindhi translation was done by Akhund Azaz Allah Muttalawi (1747–1824 CE / 1160–1240 AH) and first published in Gujarat in 1870. The first to appear in print was by Muhammad Siddiq (Lahore 1867).[30]

Phonology[edit]

Sindhi has a relatively large inventory of both consonants and vowels compared to other languages. Sindhi has 46 consonantphonemes and 16 vowels. The consonant to vowel ratio is around average for world's languages at 2.8.[31] All plosives, affricates, nasals, the retroflex flap and the lateral approximant /l/ have aspirated or breathy voiced counterparts. The language also features four implosives.

Consonants[edit]

The retroflex consonants are apicalpostalveolar and do not involve curling back of the tip of the tongue, so they could be transcribed /t̠, t̠ʰ, d̠, d̠ʱ n̠ n̠ʱ s̠ ɾ̠ ɾ̠ʱ/. The dental implosive is sometimes realized as retroflex [ɗ̠]~[ᶑ] The affricates /t̠ɕ, t̠ɕʰ, d̠ʑ, d̠ʑʱ/ are laminal post-alveolars with a relatively short release. It is not clear if /ɲ/ is similar, or truly palatal.[34]/ʋ/ is realized as labiovelar [w] or labiodental [ʋ] in free variation occurs, but is not common, except before a stop.

Vowels[edit]

The vowels are modal length /i e æ ɑ ɔ o u/ and short /ɪ̆ ʊ̆ ɐ̆/. (Note /æ ɑ ɐ̆/ are imprecisely transcribed as /ɛ a ə/ in the chart.) Consonants following short vowels are lengthened: [pɐ̆tˑo] 'leaf' vs. [pɑto] 'worn'.

Grammar[edit]

Ernest Trumpp authored the first Sindhi grammar entitled Sindhi Alphabet and Grammar.[35]

Vocabulary[edit]

Sindhi has borrowed from English and Hindustani. Today, Sindhi in Pakistan is slightly influenced by Urdu, with more borrowed Perso-Arabic elements, while Sindhi in India is influenced by Hindi, with more borrowed tatsam Sanskrit elements.[36][37]

[edit]

The following extract is from the Sindhi Wikipedia about the Sindhi language and is written in the 52-letter Sindhi-Arabic script, Devanagari and transliterated to Latin.

Sindhi-Arabic script:سنڌي ٻولي انڊو يورپي خاندان سان تعلق رکندڙ آريائي ٻولي آھي، جنھن تي عربي ٻوليءَ جو بہ تمام وڏو اثر آهي. هن وقت سنڌي ٻولي سنڌ جي مک ٻولي ۽ دفتري زبان آھي.‎

Devanagari script:सिन्धी ॿोली इण्डो यूरपी ख़ान्दान सां ताल्लुक़ु रखन्दड़ आर्याई ॿोली आहे, जिंहन ते कुझ द्राविड़ी उहुञाण पण मौजूद आहिनि। हिन वक़्तु सिन्धी ॿोली सिन्ध जी मुख ॿोली ऐं दफ़्तरी ज़बान आहे।

Transliteration (IAST): sindhī b̤olī iṇḍo yūrapī khāndān sā̃ taʿlluqu rakhandaṛ āryāī b̤olī āhe, janhin te arbi boli-a jo tamaam waddo asar-u aahe. hin-a vaqtu sindhī b̤olī sindh jī mukh b̤olī ãĩ daftarī zabānā āhe.

Dialects[edit]

The dialects of Sindhi include Vicholi, Lari, Lasi, Kathiawari Katchi, Thareli, Macharia, Dukslinu and Muslim Sindhi.[38] The "Siraiki" dialect in northern Sindh is distinct from the Saraiki language of South Punjab[39] and has variously been treated either as a dialect of it, or as a dialect of Sindhi.[40] The Sindhi dialects previously known as "Siraiki" are nowadays more commonly referred to as "Siroli".

Writing system[edit]

Written Sindhi is mentioned in the 8th century, when references to a Sindhi version of the Mahabharata appear. However, the earliest attested records in Sindhi are from the 15th century.[27]

Before the standardisation of Sindhi orthography, numerous forms of the Devanagari and Lunda (Laṇḍā) scripts were used for trading. For literary and religious purposes, an Arabic-Persian alphabet known as Ab-ul-Hassan Sindhi and Gurmukhi (a subset of Laṇḍā) were used. Another two scripts, Khudabadi and Shikarpuri, were reforms of the Landa script.[42][43] During British rule in the late 19th century, a Persian alphabet was decreed standard over Devanagari.[44]

Medieval Sindhi devotional literature (1500–1843) comprises Sufi poetry and Advaita Vedanta poetry. Sindhi literature flourished during the modern period (since 1843), although the language and literary style of contemporary Sindhi writings in Pakistan and India were noticeably diverging by the late 20th century; authors from the former country were borrowing extensively from Persian and Arabic vocabulary, while those from the latter were highly influenced by Hindi.[27]

Laṇḍā scripts[edit]

Laṇḍā-based scripts, such as Gurmukhi, Khojki and the Khudabadi script were used historically to write Sindhi.

Khudabadi[edit]

The Khudabadi alphabet was invented in 1550 CE, and was used alongside the Arabic script by the Hindu community until the colonial era, where the sole usage of the Arabic script for official purposes was legislated.

The script continued to be used in a smaller scale by the trader community until the independence of Pakistan in 1947.[45]

Khojki[edit]

Khojki was employed primarily to record Muslim Shia Ismaili religious literature, as well as literature for a few secret Shia Muslim sects.[46]

Gurmukhi[edit]

The Gurmukhi script was also used to write Sindhi, mainly in the North of Sindh, and also by Hindu women.[45][47]

Arabic script[edit]

Historically, different versions of the Arabic script were used by the Hindu and Muslim communities.[48] During British rule in India, a variant of the Persian alphabet was adopted for Sindhi in the 19th century. The script is used in Pakistan today. It has a total of 64 letters, augmenting the Persian with digraphs and eighteen new letters (ڄ ٺ ٽ ٿ ڀ ٻ ڙ ڍ ڊ ڏ ڌ ڇ ڃ ڦ ڻ ڱ ڳ ڪ) for sounds particular to Sindhi and other Indo-Aryan languages. Some letters that are distinguished in Arabic or Persian are homophones in Sindhi.

جھڄجپثٺٽٿتڀٻبا
ɟʱʄɟpsʈʰʈtɓbɑːʔ∅
ڙرذڍڊڏڌدخحڇچڃ
ɽrzɖʱɖɗdxhcɲ
ڪقڦفغعظطضصشسز
kqfɣɑːoːeːʔʕ∅ztzsʃsz
يءھوڻنملڱگھڳگک
jiːhʋʊoːɔːuːɳnmlŋɡʱɠɡ
Cover of a book containing the epic Dodo Chanesar written in the Khudabadi script

Sindhi literature, body of writings in the Sindhi language, an Indo-Aryan language used primarily in Pakistan and India. The beginning of Sindhi literature can be traced back to the 11th century in the stray verses of an Ismāʿīlī missionary. But it was the poetic works of Qadi Qadan (1463?–1551), Shah Abdul Karim (1536–1623), and Shah Inat Rizvi (late 17th century), three Sufi mystics, which gave Sindhi literature its distinctive character. The most-important feature of Sindhi literature is the coexistence of Vedantic thought and Islamic mysticism.

The body of religious poetry that grew in Sindhi from the 15th to the 18th century is entirely dominated by a religious liberalism. The greatest poet in Sindhi is Shah Abdul Latif of Bhit (1690–1752), known for his collection of poems Risalo. Latif criticized all forms of religious orthodoxies and preached the oneness of God and the universal brotherhood in a language charged with Sufi emotionalism. He was followed by another poet, also a Sufi saint, Abdul Wahhab Sachal Sarmast (1739–1826), who enriched the tradition of religious songs. His contemporary Sami (1743?–1850) was a Vedantist. He represented the tradition of bhakti poetry then in decline in other parts of India.

Another important feature of Sindhi literature is its intimate relationship with Perso-Arabic literary tradition. Sindh was an important centre of Indo-Persian poetry, and Sindhi poetry was strongly influenced by several Persian genres, such as the ghazal. Sindhi Hindus too participated in Sufi mystical poetry. The finest example is Diwan Dalpatram Sufi (died 1841), who composed a heroic ballad, a Persian jangnama about the famous Sufi martyr Shah Inayat of Jhok, whose death in 1718 was celebrated in several later poems. Sayyid Sabit Ali Shah (1740–1810) not only composed ghazals in Sindhi but also initiated the marsiagenre, an elegy on the deaths of al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī and his followers at the Battle of Karbalāʾ.

After the British annexed Sindh in 1843, modernity became prominent in an age of prose. The four great prose writers of that era were Kauromal Khilnani (1844–1916), Mirza Qalich Beg (1853–1929), Dayaram Gidumal (1857–1927), and Parmanand Mewaram (1856?–1938). They produced original works and adapted books from Sanskrit, Hindi, Persian, and English. Kauromal Khilnani published Arya nari charitra (1905; “The Indo-Aryan Women”) and wrote extensively on the panchayat system, health, agriculture, and folklore. His style was simple and stately. Mirza Qalich Beg, nicknamed “the Book Machine” by Kauromal Khilnani, published more than 300 books that were creative and discursive. The most-learned Sindhi author of the era, Dayaram Gidumal, was distinguished for his elegant and eloquent prose, as seen in his essays on the Japji Sahib (1891), the Bhagavadgita (1893), and the Yoga darshan (1903). Parmanand Mewaram’s magazine, Jote, published essays by him and by other writers. Those essays were rich and varied in content and lucid and forceful in style, and some of them were published in Dil bahar (1904; “Spring for the Heart”) and Gul phul (2 vol., 1925–36; “Flowers”). Modern Sindhi literature prior to the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947 was marked by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi’s influence, which worked not only on the Sindhi verbal expression but also on the Sindhi emotional and imaginative levels. A lively literary scene continues to flourish in the scattered Sindhi-speaking Hindu community settled in India since 1947, but the principal centre of Sindhi literature today is in Pakistan, which has been home to many fine writers, notably the outstanding modernist Sindhi poet Shaikh Ayaz (1923–97), who is also well known for his fine verse translation into Urdu of the classic Sindhi poetry of Shah Abdul Latif of Bhit.

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