Child labour in Bangladesh is common, with 4.7 million or 12.6% of children aged 5 to 14 in the work force. Out of the child labourers engaged in the work force, 83% are employed in rural areas and 17% are employed in urban areas.Child labour can be found in agriculture, poultry breeding, fish processing, the garment sector and the leather industry, as well as in shoe production. Children are involved in jute processing, the production of candles, soap and furniture. They work in the salt industry, the production of asbestos, bitumen, tiles and ship breaking.
In 2006, Bangladesh passed a Labour Law setting the minimum legal age for employment as 14. Nevertheless, the enforcement of such labour laws is virtually impossible in Bangladesh because 93% of child labourers are employed in the informal sector such as small factories and workshops, on the street, in home-based businesses and domestic employment.
Despite the prevalence of child labour in Bangladesh, there has been an increase in legislation against child labour. Bangladesh has ratified, the ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (C182). In addition, the country also ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
The definition of child labour varies depending on region, culture, organization, and government. The Western perspective portrays childhood as a carefree stage of life in which a person does not possess the capacity to be an adult. Although there is no universal definition for child labour, various organizations have defined child labour and its parameters.
The International Labour Organization's (ILO) Minimum Age Convention 138 states that at age 12 a child is allowed to light work in non-hazardous situations and at age 15 a child is allowed to enter the work force. The ILO defines child labour as "work that exceeds a minimum number of hours, depending on the age of a child and on the type of work". The ILO also has three categories pertaining to children in work: economically active children, child labour, and hazardous work. Children can be categorised as economically active if they are involved in work outside of school or the home at least one hour once every seven days. Children can be categorised as performing child labour if they are under the age of 12 or performing hazardous work. Children are categorised as performing hazardous work if they are involved in activities that may harm their physical, mental, or developmental health or safety.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child labour as any activity that affects a child's health and education. Its definition also states that child labour is work that leads to deprivation of childhood activities, exploitation and abuse.[not in citation given]
The International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) defines employment and economically active children as "paid and unpaid work in the formal and nonformal sectors of rural and urban areas". This definition excludes children working in their own households.
The Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics considers children aged 5–14 who work for one or more hours (per week) in both paid and unpaid settings to be child workers. For children older than 10, any economic activity is considered a form a child labour. This includes work both inside and outside of the household setting.
Causes and impact
Poverty is widely recognised and acknowledged as the primary cause of child labour. The link between poverty and child labour is supported by efforts of international organizations, such as the ILO and the United Nations, to reduce child labour through poverty reduction policies. There is a strong negative correlation between the income level of a country and the incidence rate of child labour. An increase of $0–$500 per capita income to $500–$1000 per capita income can lead to a decrease in child labour incidence rate from 30%–60% to 10%–30%. Although the annual per capita income of Bangladesh has been increasing, around 9–13% of the total labour force in Bangladesh still consists of children aged 5–14. In a 2013 statistical report, UNICEF estimates that around 43.3% of the population in Bangladesh is currently living below the international poverty line.
Factors such as urbanization and population growth perpetuate poverty. In a 2013 statistical report, UNICEF estimated an annual population growth rate in Bangladesh to be 1.7% from 1990–2012. Populations move from rural to urban areas because there is an increase in available economic opportunities. A combination of poor living standards in urban settings and an influx of cheap labour from children perpetuate both poverty and the use of child labour. The prevalence of child labour can be attributed to the socioeconomic statuses of families living at or below the poverty line. Oftentimes, families rely on the extra income produced by their children in order to sustain their livelihood. Many children are forced to work to help support the family. In other cases, children are forced to work for a living for themselves because their families abandoned or could not take care of them. Studies have shown that children from poorer families are more likely to be in the work force due to their contribution to overall family income.
The demographics of the population in Bangladesh can also be a predictor of child labour incidence rates. Children in rural areas are more likely to work than children in urban areas. This may be due to the agricultural history of Bangladesh and the tradition of children working alongside adults in the fields. However, in both rural and urban settings, boys are more likely to work than girls, with the majority of child workers falling in the age range of 12–14.
Family dynamics also contributed to child labour incidence rates. Children in households with a large proportion of adults in the family are less likely to work. Children in households where all adults are working are more likely to work. Children in households where there is a larger portion of paid adult workers are even more likely to work. These findings by Salmon (2005) indicate that children act as a source of income generation because households that maximise all human capital tend to be households that have incidences of child labour.
Lack of education
Main article: Education in Bangladesh
Lack of education remains one of the top impacts of child labour. Child labour is a deterrent to schooling. Many policies aimed at eradicating child labour have focused on increasing accessibility to education. Organizations such as the ILO, the United Nations, and UNICEF recognise the importance of education in helping to eradicate poverty and in preventing child labour growth rates. According to UNICEF, the new National Education Policy requires that children must complete school until grade eight and that school must be free. Many definitions of child labour state education as a right of childhood and consider barriers to education as a defining characteristic of child labour.
There is a strong relationship between child labour and school attendance. In a 2010 statistical report, UNICEF measured that around 50% of all working children in Bangladesh do not attend school. Another 6.8% of children between age 7 and 14 whom, while going to school, also work. Of those that do attend school, school performance is negatively affected when children are in the work force. Although school is free, many children are forced to drop out because they do not have the time or resources to attend. For many families, the income produced by their children is considered more valuable than an education that requires their child to stop working. A study conducted by Rahman (1997) found that around 58% of working children listed economic hardship as the reason they were not attending school. Of those that did choose to go to school, conditions of schools and the quality of education proved to be serious barriers to significant learning. A 2002 and 2003 survey conducted by the World Bank showed that on average teachers in Bangladesh miss one out of five days of work a week.
It has also been found that illiteracy rates are a predictor of child labour prevalence. In 2013, UNICEF estimates that total adult literacy is around 57.7%. Literacy rates also tend to be lower for females than males. In Bangladesh, less than 75% of girls finish their primary education.
According to the recent 2014 TVPRA List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor published by the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of International Labor Affairs, Bangladesh figures among the 74 countries where significant incidence of child labour and forced labour is still observed. 15 products are produced in such working conditions in Bangladesh.
Most child labourers in Bangladesh are employed in the informal sector. These forms of labour are hard to regulate and monitor. The most common forms of work is agriculture, in rural areas, and domestic service, in urban areas. The majority of all child labourers in Bangladesh work in agriculture. Agricultural activities include poultry farming, drying fish, salt mining, shrimp farming and produce logistics. Children in agriculture use dangerous tools, carry heavy loads, and apply harmful pesticides. Many of these children are employed by their families as extra hands in the fields or sent out to work for their own food. They often work long hours with little to no pay and endure dangerous conditions that result in many health issues.
Children, mostly girls, work as domestic servants in private households in Bangladesh. Domestic child labourers work long hours and subject to harassment, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. The majority of children working as domestic workers are employed seven days a week and live in the home they serve. Separation from family and working in private homes often results in the abuse and exploitation of these children. They endure harsh working conditions that cause psychological stress, physical strain, and health issues with little pay or compensation in the form of food, clothing, and shelter. Because domestic service occurs in the home, it is often not considered economic work. Therefore, there are minimal regulations for fair working conditions and wages.
Other informal industries with large child labour activity (age below 18) include ship breaking and recycling operations, production of soap, matches, bricks, cigarettes, footwear, furniture, glass, jute, leather, textiles, restaurants, garbage picking and trash hunting, vending, begging, portering, and van pulling. Many working children earn less than 10 US dollars per month.
The garment industry is the largest employer of child labour in the formal sector. The industry expanded rapidly from 1983 to 1999, becoming the country's largest source of export earnings. Bangladesh is in the top ten largest garment exporters in the world. The garment industry not only increased economic earning but also increased available jobs in urban settings, especially for women. As a result, the incidence of child labourers in urban areas increased. The majority of labourers in the garment industry hired are girls and women. Bangladesh garment factories have been accused of forcing girls as young as 13 to work up to 11 hours a day to produce garments for western retailers.
Children in this industry work around 10 hours a day for about 12 U.S. dollars a month. Children are also exposed to various health and safety hazards. Garment shops are at great risk of fires due to blocked fire exits, poor crowd control, and lack of fire safety precautions. Working in garment shops also exposes children to dangerous chemicals and heavy machinery. These exposures to safety hazards can lead to various health issues ranging from cuts and bruises to musculoskeletal disorders.
Child labour laws influencing practices in Bangladesh
Legislation in Bangladesh
- The Employment of Children Act 1938
This act allowed for children aged 15 or up to work in the railway industry and in transporting goods in port jobs. It also allowed for children aged 15–17 to work night shifts that may last until the morning under certain stipulations such as resting for 13 consecutive hours, working under someone that is 18 years or older, or serving an apprenticeship. It prohibited children under 12 from working in hazardous industries but did not mention protection for children between the ages 12–18.
- The Factories Act 1965
This act prohibited children under 14 to work in or be present in factories. Factories was defined as any place with more than 10 people employed. It also listed various protections for children from hazardous machines and operations. It prohibited any work duration of longer than 5 hours between 7pm to 7am. It also states the weight lifting limits for types of workers (male, female, child).
- Shops and Establishment Act 1965
This act defined a shop or establishment as a place that employs 5 or more people. This act prohibited children under the age of 12 from working in any establishment. It allowed children aged 12–18 to work in establishments but limited the number of work hours to a maximum of 7 hours a day.
- The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
The Constitution of Bangladesh while guaranteeing the fundamental rights for the people prohibits all forms of forced labor under Article 34. Article 34 lays down that 'all forms of forced labor are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offense punishable in accordance with law'.
- The Children Act 2013
The Children Act 2013 repealed the previous Children Act 1974 which was inconsistent with international standards particularly with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989. Section 4 of this Act provides that notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force every person shall be deemed to be a child who is below the age of 18 years. Though there is no specific provision prohibiting child labor it proscribes and punishes some serious offenses against children including exploitation of children (section 80).
Applicable laws from other legal jurisdictions
- The Child Labor Deterrence Act 1993 (Harkin's Bill)
Main article: Child Labor Deterrence Act
Originating from U.S. Senator Tom Harkin, this bill banned imports of items that were associated with child labour at various stages of production, whether it was direct involvement in the product or indirect involvement such as packaging. This law affected the labour situation in Bangladesh because garment industries, fearing a loss of business, fired many child labourers.
- Human Trafficking Deterrence and Suppression Act 2012
According to the Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking (OCFT) United States Department of Labor:
In 2011, Bangladesh made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Bangladesh passed the Human Trafficking Deterrence and Suppression Act 2012 which makes human trafficking (including labor trafficking) a capital offense, developed and fully funded a Child Labor Monitoring Information System to manage child labor related data and began implementation of a $9 million child labor project. However, legal protections regarding child labor are limited and the capacity to enforce child labor laws remains weak. Bangladesh maintains a low compulsory education age. Children in Bangladesh are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, primarily in dangerous activities in agriculture and domestic service.
The legislation tried to enroll more children and adults into school and away from work. This was not the outcome. Some children enrolled in school, but many sought other work. Due to the law, many kids took more dangerous jobs in the informal economy, including; prostitution, street hawkers, stone welding, and as maids. Schooling is compulsory only to age 10. The minimum age for most child labor is 14, 18 for hazardous work.
Initiatives against child labour
- The Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) 1995
Signed by the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA), ILO, and UNICEF this initiative allowed children displaced and fired from the garment industry to receive education, vocational training, and skills training. It also provided families with income to make up for their child's lack of work. This program is also called "The Placement of Children Workers in School Programs and the Elimination of Child Labor." The MOU has made an impact in reducing child labour in the garment industry in Bangladesh. Because of this program, more than 8,200 children received non-formal education after losing their jobs. Additionally, 680 children received vocational training.
- The Bangladesh Rehabilitation Assistance Committee (BRAC)
The Bangladesh Rehabilitation Assistance Committee is a non-profit organization founded in the mid-1970s in Bangladesh. BRAC, along with Grameen Bank, are the two largest lenders of microcredit in Bangladesh. Together they cover 59% of borrowers in the country. Microcredit has been shown to alleviate poverty but in small amounts. The effects of microcredit are not large enough to change the lives of an entire population. However, it has been shown to allow families in poverty to find a way out. BRAC has also been responsible for running schools for non-formal education that were put in place to teach children fired from jobs. These non-formal schools also gave children another option besides schooling. Along with the schooling program, families also received health care services and monthly cash stipends to make up for the wages their children were not bringing in by participating in the schooling program.
- Other strategies
In addition to the work of the government, BRAC, and ILO, there have been a number of contributions from international organizations and donors to help start strategies against child labour. These strategies include: taking children out of hazardous work environments and placing them in schooling or training programs, giving families stipends to compensate for loss in wages from a decrease in child labour, and raising awareness of the harmful effects of child labour.
International conventions and other instruments:
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- ^Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (2006). Baseline Survey for Determining Hazardous Child Labour Sectors in Bangladesh 2005. Dhaka: Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. ISBN 978-9845086257.
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- ^ abcdefghijklmnSchmitz, Cathryne L.; Traver, Elizabeth KimJin; Larson, Desi, eds. (2004). Child Labor: A Global View. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-313-32277-8.
- ^ abcdeThe end of child labour: Within reach(PDF). Geneva: International Labour Organization. 2006. ISBN 92-2-116603-1.
- ^ abcdefghijSalmon, Claire (June 2005). "Child Labor in Bangladesh: Are Children the Last Economic Resource of the Household?". Journal of Developing Societies. Sage Publications. 21 (1–2): 33–54. doi:10.1177/0169796X05053066.
- ^ abcdefghijkRahman, Mohammad Mafizur; Khanam, Rasheda; Absar, Nur Uddin (December 1999). "Child Labor in Bangladesh: A Critical Appraisal of Harkin's Bill and the MOU-Type Schooling Program". Journal of Economic Issues. Association for Evolutionary Economics. 33 (4): 985–1003. doi:10.2307/4227511. JSTOR 4227511.
- ^ abcdeHobbs, Sandy; McKechnie, Jim; Lavalette, Michael (1999). Child Labor: A World History Companion. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-87436-956-4.
- ^ abc"Bangladesh: Statistics". UNICEF. 18 December 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- ^ abUddin, Mohammad Nashir; Hamiduzzaman, Mohammad; Gunter, Bernhard G. (July 2009). "Physical and Psychological Implications of Risky Child Labor: A Study in Sylhet City, Bangladesh"(PDF). Bangladesh Development Research Center (BDRC).
- ^ abcd"2011 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor: Bangladesh"(PDF). Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking (OCFT). United States Department of Labor. 2011. Archived from the original(PDF) on 20 July 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- ^ abcBanerjee, Abhijit V.; Duflo, Esther (2011). Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Poverty. New York: PublicAffairs. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-61039-093-4.
- ^Seager, Joni (2009). The Penguin Atlas of Women in the World. New York: Penguin Books. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-14-311451-2.
- ^"List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor". United States Department of Labor.
- ^ abcForastieri, Valentina (2002). Children at Work: Health and Safety Risks. Geneva: International Labour Organization. pp. 31–34, 76, 81. ISBN 978-92-2-111399-7.
- ^ ab"Child Labor in Bangladesh". Blood, Sweat and Tears: The Story of Child Labor. ThinkQuest Library. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013.
- ^"2012 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labour: Bangladesh". United States Department of Labor. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014.
- ^ abSinha, Anisur Rahman (2002). "Bangaldesh: A Multilateral Collaboration to Eliminate Child Labor in the Export-Oriented Garment Industry". In U.S. Department of Labor; International Labour Organisation. Advancing the Global Campaign Against Child Labor: Progress Made and Future Actions. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs. pp. 61–66.
- ^ abcMorrow, Colette; Fredrick, Terri Anm (2012). Getting In Is Not Enough: Women and the Global Workplace. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 73. ISBN 1-4214-0635-7.
- ^Brignall, Miles; Butler, Sarah (5 February 2014). "Bangladesh garment factories still exploiting child labour for UK products". The Guardian.
- ^Forastieri, Valentina (2002). Children at Work: Health and Safety Risks. Geneva: International Labour Organization. pp. 39, 78. ISBN 978-92-2-111399-7.
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- Timmerman, Kelsey (2009). Where am I wearing? A global tour to the countries, factories, and people that make our clothes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 1-118-27755-4. - a quarter of the book is a personal account of the author's visit to Bangladesh
Child labour is the employment of children below the age of 14 years in any industry or business. Child labour is an illegal act and has been a big social issue in India for years. It is considered as exploitative for the future of children and country. Any type of job performed by the children in industries is difficult and demanding as well as more hazardous and morally reprehensible for them. Children have to perform a wide range of tasks and activities even after being of small age and low capacity.
We have provided below various short paragraphs on child labour under different words limit for the students. We hope following child labour paragraphs will surely help students in completing their tasks in school. It will also help small kids and children to write or recite paragraphs in simple words and small sentences. Students can select any paragraph on child labour according to their need and requirement:
Paragraph on Child Labour
Child Labour Paragraph 1
Child labour is an illegal act performed by the children in their little age by the involvement of some industrialists and businessmen all over India. Industrialists and businessmen generally chose child labour because of the efficient work in minimum time at low cost. And, children generally get involved in child labour because of their poverty and lack of education. People, who are very poor and cannot manage their two times food and clothes, become forced to send their kids and children to do some job at lowest payment instead of sending them to the school for education.
According to the survey of 2001, it was found that approximately 90 percent of the children were involved in productive activities as a supplement to their family income (23.8%) or improving their family income (66%). Tasks or activities, which are not involved in affecting the health and personal development of children or interfering in their schooling, cannot be counted as child labour. They can be taken as positive and no need to be eliminated. However, all those activities, affecting a child in all aspects (health, personal development, schooling, etc), are needed to be eliminated.
Child Labour Paragraph 2
Generally, middle class children get involved in some simple house tasks and activities which help their parents in daily routine without affecting children’s health and schooling. Such activities at home are considered to be necessary for children. However, all the activities that affect children’s health, development and schooling, come under child labour. Child labour involves some hard tasks performed by children below the age group of 14 years at very low payment. Child labour is needed by some Industrialists and businessmen in the country who want efficient work at low minimum cost.
Child labour is also the need of poor people (living below the poverty line), who fail to manage two times food for them, send their kids and children to do some job even at very low cost. Such activities should be blocked urgently by the government by supporting the poor people. They should be motivated to send their kids to school and get proper education. It is needed to take some positive steps by both, government and well doing citizens to help poor people and their kids to be productive members of the Indian society in their adult life.
Child Labour Paragraph 3
Child labour is the illegal act which forces children to be away from of their normal childhood, their schooling, their normal growth and development. Child labour is a big social issue; it is destroying the nation’s future by harming the physical and mental development of its future leaders. It is very dangerous for children in all aspects such as mentally, physically, socially, and morally. It interferes with the schooling of children, deprives their opportunity to attend school, forces them to leave school prematurely, forces them to perform tasks of long hours and heavy work, etc.
Child labour has enslaved the life of children, separated them from their childhood, education and families, exposed them to serious hazards, illnesses, diseases and many more harms at a very early age. A big percentage of children are involved in child labour in the field of agriculture, and other involved fields are fishing, mining and quarrying, construction, manufacturing, restaurants and hotels, storage, transport, communications, insurance, finance, real-estate, business services and many more. It has been spread all over the country like a disease and poison which needed to be out off this to save the present of children and future of country.
Child Labour Paragraph 4
Child labour is the illegal act running in India for many years and ruining the present and future of the children. It has taken many different forms and has been an urgent priority to be eliminated from the society without any delay. Child labour has been a deep rooted social issue which in turn has given rise to other social issues such as sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage, serfdom, forced labour at low cost, etc. Some other acts involved are children are hired for prostitution, pornography, production and trafficking of drugs, etc. All such activities are harming the children’s health, development, safety and morals. All the activities, which put at risk the physical, mental and moral well-being of a child, come under the category of hazardous work.
According to the Constitution of India, children below the age group of 14 years are completely prohibited to be involved in factory, mine or other hazardous employment in anyways. They (children of 6-14 years) should be provided free and compulsory education by the state government. They should not be abused and forced by economic necessity. They should be given full opportunities and all the required facilities to develop in healthy manner. In-spite-of all these rules and regulations, there are many industries and businesses which are using child labour.
Child Labour Paragraph 5
Child labour is the harmful act to the children below 14 years of age. Despite of various rules and regulations by the Indian government, child labour is still practiced. Under development goals and strategies of India, a policy was adopted named National Child Labour Policy in 1987. Later, a Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act was adopted in 1986. The national policy reiterates the directive principle of state policy in India’s Constitution. Both were adopted as the general development programmes in order to benefit the children of age group 6-14 years.
Another programme, National Child Labour Projects (NCLPs), was established by the Ministry of Labour and Employment at national level to rehabilitate the children working in hazardous occupations since 1988. According to this programme, some basic facilities are given to the children such as conducting surveys, evaluating percentage of child labour, opening special schools, pre-vocational skills training, generating employment opportunities, raising public awareness, etc. Around
One hundred NCLPs have been launched all over the country regarding rehabilitation of children working in hazardous industries (glass, bangles, locks, brassware, slate tiles, carpets, fireworks, matches, gems, etc).
Child Labour Paragraph 6
Child labor is a harmful act involves the children of below 14 years of age group. It harms the children to a great extent and keeps them away from attending regular school. The percentage of child labour is increasing all around the world because of increasing gap between rich and poor people. According to the research, it is found that around millions of young children were involved in illegal work by leaving their school in the recent decades.
According to the International Labor Organization, it is found that around 215 million children (age group 5-17 years) are working in the hazardous and extremely exploitative field as they belong to the extremely poor family. Most of the children are involved in the child labour in the fields like commercial agriculture, manufacturing, mining, fishing, production, domestic service, drug trade, prostitution, traumatic activities (serving as soldiers), etc. Child labour is very harmful as it involves in threatening the physical, mental, and emotional well-being of children, child slavery, debt bondage, forced labor, child trafficking, prohibit schooling, etc. It is recorded that, approximately 114 million (53%) child laborers are in Asia and the Pacific, 65 million (30%) child laborers in sub-Saharan Africa and 14 million (7%) child laborers in Latin America are found.
Child Labour Paragraph 7
Children are considered as the future of nation. So, they should be protected a lot from any hazardous. They should be given proper care and love, time to live their childhood, getting education, and other things according to their rights. They should carry books in their hands and not bricks. They should play with toys and other indoor or outdoor games like footballs, cricket, etc. They should go to the school and not to the mines or industries.
Various NGOs are working in this field to ensure that all the Indian children are getting their basic rights guaranteed by the United Nations Charter of Child Rights, 1992. Basic rights are: right to survival, right to protection, right to development, and right to participation. Some of the industries using child labour are textiles, hand-knotted carpets, silk, construction, glass, footwear, brassware, production, gemstone polishing, fireworks, etc. Child labour is generally preferred by the industrialist and businessmen as they get efficient work at low cost. 30th of April is celebrated as Anti-Child Labour Day all over India in order to spread awareness among people against child labour.
Child Labour Paragraph 8
Child labor is the involvement of little children into hard activities at low labour cost. It persists for years and even increasing despite of laws and standards by the government to eliminate it. There are various causes of child labour however global child labor causes are almost similar. Some of the main reasons of child labour are like poverty, illiterate parents, limited access of children to education, and repression of child rights. Poverty and unemployment of adults are causing their children to get involved in some kind of work in little age at low cost. There is a huge gap between poor and rich people. So, the children of poor people do not get access to the free education and require facilities.
There are huge violations in accepting the existing laws or codes of conduct against child labour. Laws and enforcement against child labour are inadequate which allow children to involve in some kind of labor. At some places, child rights are repressed.
Child Labour Paragraph 9
Child labour is the employment of children in any type of work. It keeps children away from the childhood and interferes with their schooling. It is dangerous and harmful to all the children (below age group of 14 years) in the aspects like physically, mentally, and socially or morally. It is an exploitative act performed by many industries for their own benefits. There are various rules and regulations prohibiting child labour however not getting followed properly by the people. Child labour is generally used in the field of agriculture, factories, mining and other home-based assembly operations.
In various developing countries, the main reasons (primary causes) of child labour are high poverty level and poor schooling opportunities in front of the poor children. According to the statistics of 2010, the highest incidence rates of child labour was in sub-saharan Africa. It was witnessed by some African nations that around 50% children between ages 5-14 years are working. Child labour is generally used in rural areas and informal urban economy by their parents or owner of factories.
Child Labour Paragraph 10
Child labour is the practice of involving children below age 14 years in some economic activities as part time or full time. This practice is very harmful to the physical and mental development of the children. It keeps them away from the happy childhood and good memories with parents. Some of the primary causes of child labour are poverty, lack of facilities for proper schooling, growth of informal economy, etc. According to the national census of 1998, child labour had involved around 12.6 million children aged 4-15 years (total child population of age group 5-14 years was 253 million).
However, it was reduced to 4.98 million children in the nationwide survey of 2009-2010. According to the national census of 2011, total number of children involved in child labour (aged 5-14) was 4.35 million. Child labour is not a national problem only; it is a worldwide issue being hazardous day by day. Involving children (between age group 4-14 years) in any hazardous industries is a criminal offense, despite; it is very hard to eliminate it from the society.
Child Labour Paragraph 11
Child labour is a major social problem. It refers to the employment of children in any work in exchange for which they are given wages. Depriving children of their childhood, child labour interferes with their ability to attend regular school. Dangerous and harmful in mental, physical, social and moral terms, child labour is illegal in every country including India. It is a major socio-economic problem that has a negative impact on a child’s growth, formation of thoughts and attitude, and the ability to gain maturity. Child labour is a blot or curse which has laid its stranglehold across the country in such a way that despite the efforts of the administration, the practice of child labour is still prevalent in society.
Causes of Child Labour in India
There are many reasons for the continuing problem of child labour; these include the domestic use of children in others’ houses, shops, over population, illiteracy, poverty, debt trap etc.
According to UNICEF children are employed because they can be easily exploited. By considering various causes of child labour, we can make a strategy to curb or eliminate child labour.
How we can Stop Child Labour
Child labour is a curse which will never let our society become free from injustice. Today, we find many such instances where children are doing labour by sacrificing their childhood. We should discuss among ourselves about preventing child labour. We should tell other people too about the ways to prevent child labour. We should discuss child labour and child exploitation awareness among people.
Laws against Child Labour in India
Despite the efforts of government and non-governmental institutions (NGOs), there is little decrease in the practice of child labour in our country. Nevertheless, the government has enforced strict laws to prohibit child labour. Let’s know about these regulations:
Under the Factory Act, any child below the age of 14 is prohibited from rendering any work in any factory. Under this rule, many types of restrictions have been imposed on the working of even children of the age group of 15-18 years.
Under the Mines Act, any child below the age of 18 is prohibited from doing any work in any mine. Keeping in view the professional hazards at mines, the government has proposed to implement this stringent rule.
- The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986
The government has prepared a list of activities that are dangerous for children. According to this rule, children below the age of 14 are prohibited from performing any work in the list.
- The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000
Under this law, it is a legal offence to incite or force any child to render any labour. The law prescribes severe penalties for employers of child labour.
- The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009
Under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act or Right to Education Act (RTE), there is a provision for free education for children of 6-14 years of age.
Essay on Child Labour
Speech on Child Labour
Slogans on Child Labour
Child Labour in India
Child Rights Day
National Girl Child Day