India Developing Country Essay Example

Why India is still a poor country?

November 21, 2013

by Ramandeep Kaur

India dreams to develop into a superpower but a third of the world’s poor still lives here. India is one of the fastest developing economies in the world but also a home to the largest number of malnourished children. Majority of India lives in villages and at the same time rural India is facing the hardship of poverty much harder than urban India. Though India is growing economically but the growth of this kind is creating two much demarcated societies – one poor and another rich. Prevailing poverty and hunger continue to haunt the economic growth and making it further slow.

International poverty line is US$ 1.25 per day (PPP) and as per the World Bank report 32.7% of the population in India lives below the poverty line whereas 68.7% survive on less than US$ 2 per day. 45% of children in India are malnourished. India has the worst infant mortality rate and it is even worse than Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Although Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is showing an impressive growth over a period of time but because of poverty regional, economical and social disparity has increased to manifold. These are few of the daunting and much talked about facts related to poverty in India.

Number of poor are declining but only in few states such as Punjab, northern Haryana and Kerala and not in Bihar and Assam. Traditionally disadvantage sections of the society including schedule caste and schedule tribe, indigenous peoples and dalits are still poor in spite of many efforts.

But why despite all the efforts and schemes to eradicate poverty, India is still a poor country? Why does India continue to be poor after 66 years of independence?  Corruption, lack of education, distribution of wealth, population explosion, caste system, mentality, mismanagement are some of the widespread causes of poverty in India. For an example, India has the largest public food distribution system for the poor in the world. Yet 21% of adults and half of India’s children under five are malnourished. With inflation, price of all the essential commodities such as fruits and vegetables is increasing that is also increasing the number of people relying on subsidized food. Because of prevalent corruption, quantity of food grains recommended to be subsidized never reaches the needy and poor completely.   According to an Asian Development Bank study, “A sustained 10% increase in domestic food prices could push an additional 64 million people, or almost 2% of Asia’s 3.3 billion people, below the poverty line of $1.25 a day”.

Reasons why India is still a poor Country


India, if not completely but is almost synonymous with the word corruption. Numerous scams in the recent years explain the saga of corruption. Almost all the government departments are affected from it. Corruption is regarded as one of the biggest reasons of poverty in India.

Corruption in the Public Distribution System (PDS) is the worst of its kind.  The leading source of corruption in India is entitlement programmes and social spending schemes that are meant for the welfare of our society.  For an example - Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA), a $9 billion program planned to offer 100 days of employment annually for the rural poor. But MNREGA failed because of corruption and mismanagement.  Just like MNREGA, the National Rural Livelihood Mission met the same fate. It was planned to empower.

Though government is putting efforts to have an “inclusive growth” but corruption is playing its role. So all such programs designed for poor and needy failed to impress and help them. Instead poor are even denied of their basic right and needs. Corruption is just like an endemic in India. It leads to social inequalities and hit economy of our nation. Funds granted to uplift the poor are misused. Poverty is further worsen by the administrative corruption. Even the simplest of the task is not performed without a bribe. Corruption also delays and diverts the economic growth.

As per the data compiled by Bloomberg, near about $14.5 billion in food was plundered by the corrupt politicians in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The loot resulted poor to survive without the required quantity of food and children to suffer from malnutrition. There are many other cases of administrative corruption further deterioration the situation and making poor poorer.

Economic policies

It is believed that economic reforms started in early 1990s are responsible for the fall down of rural economy in India. It also led to the agrarian crisis. Because of high debt, poor farmers are left with no other choice than to commit suicide. According to official statistics, number of farmers committing suicides has also increased since 1997. The new policies by the government encourage farmers to switch to cash crops in place of traditional crops. But this has led to a manifold increase in farm input cost which ultimate resulted in the economic burden and thus poverty. Also villages in India are not self sufficient like they used to be. The rural youth is mostly not well educated, lack skill and even not interested in farming. All these are enough for a disastrous and poor future. Government should come up with plans to make villages self-reliant. Skill based education must be provided to the youth.

Mismanagement and faulty development model

Much of the fund raised or allocated to the anti poverty schemes is consumed in administrative cost. So the entire chain that is formed to help the poor does not allow this to happen.

High population growth rate

Ever increasing population is not a direct cause of poverty but it is an effect. It is rightly said that excess of everything is bad. This is true in this case as well. More people mean the need of more resource, food etc. But if this surplus is trained in a right way then it can take part in the economic development of the country.

Ever increasing economic inequality

India’s growth model for sure has benefitted the businessmen but failed when we see that near about 213 million Indians go hungry every night. Rights of organized as well as unorganized workers are being violated. They are underpaid and not paid according to the industrial growth and ever rising inflation. Due to such a visible inequality each year millions of girls are sexually exploited and trafficked for money. At the same time child labour has also increased. Wealthy are acquiring more wealth. In such an inequal scenario, top 5% of households have 38% of the total assets of India whereas bottom 60% has merely 13% of the assets.

Lack of small scale sectors – Majority of economic policies and reforms are not friendly towards small scale industries. So these policies are making and creating bureaucrats but suppressing entrepreneurs.

Mentality of poor

Not only external factors but also the internal will of poor people to remain poor is an obstacle. You must have seen healthy beggars at red light. if they are asked to do task instead of begging then their simple answer is no. Even their kids do not go to school but just beg. They can never come out of this vivacious cycle of begging and poverty. To come out of poverty one has to change his or her mind. Poor must understand the importance of education and its lifelong benefits. There is no shortage of jobs in India. Even if you are not educated you have enough jobs like wrapping the color, adding buttons to the already stitched clothes and sweaters, making boards for electronic goods etc. I have seen people earning from these kinds of jobs and sending their kids to school to have a better future.

India needs great political leaders to push the nation in a forward direction. Productivity and how to use human resource for the productivity must be focused. India must educate its every child so that a resource can be added. India must have a clear economic vision and a great system is place to execute this. Confused ideologies must be separated from the clear-cut and result oriented ones. India must be free from corruption to become rich.

Related Information:

Family planning in India

Overpopulation in India

Human Trafficking in India

Child Trafficking

Child labour in India

Poverty and its causes

Why India is a poor Country ?

India is a country where people from different cultures and religions live in harmony with each other. However, discrimination is done on the basis of a person’s gender, caste, creed, religion and economic status in many parts of the country. India of my dreams would be a place where there is no such discrimination. India has seen a lot of development in the field of science, technology, education as well as other spheres over the last few decades. I dream of India as a fully developed country that does not only excel in the aforementioned fields but also continues to keep its cultural heritage intact. Here are essays of varying lengths on ‘India of my dreams’ to help you with the topic in the school during exam or essay writing competition.

Essay on India of My Dreams

India of My Dreams Essay 1 (200 words)

India enjoys a rich cultural heritage. People belonging to various castes, creeds and religions live peacefully in this country. However, there are certain groups of people that try to incite people to serve their vested interests thereby hampering peace in the country. I dream of India that is devoid of such divisive tendencies. It should be a place where different ethnic groups live in perfect harmony with each other.

I also dream of India as being a nation where every citizen is educated. I want the people of my country to understand the importance of education and ensure that their children seek education rather than indulging in menial jobs at a tender age. Adults who have missed a chance to study during their childhood must also join adult education classes to seek education in order to find a better job for themselves.

I want the government to provide equal employment opportunities for all so that the youth get deserving jobs and contribute towards the growth of the nation. I want the country to become technologically advanced and see growth in all the sectors. Lastly, I want India to be a country where women are treated with respect and are given equal opportunities as men.

India of My Dreams Essay 2 (300 words)

India is a multi-cultural, multi-lingual and multi-religious society that has seen a steady progress in various spheres over the last century. I dream of India that progresses at an even greater pace and joins the list of the developed countries in no time. Here are the key areas that need attention in order to make it a better place:

  1. Education and Employment

I dream of India where every citizen is educated and is able to find a deserving employment opportunity. No one can stop the growth and development of a nation full of educated and talented individuals.

  1. Caste and Religious Issues

India of my dreams would be a place where people would not be discriminated on the basis of their caste or religion. This would go a long way in strengthening the nation.

  1. Industrial and Technological Growth

While India has seen both industrial and technological growth in the past few decades, it is still not at par with many other countries. I dream of India that advances technologically and sees a boom in every sector.

  1. Corruption

There is a lot of corruption in the country and its rate is only growing by the day. The common man is suffering at the hands of corrupt politicians who are only interested in fulfilling their own selfish motives. I dream of India that is free from corruption at all levels. It would be a place where the betterment of the country would be the sole agenda of the government.

  1. Gender Discrimination

It is sad to see how even after proving themselves in every sphere of life women are still considered to be inferior to men. I dream of India where there is no gender discrimination. It would be a place where men and women are treated as equals.

In short, India of my dreams would be a place where people feel happy and secure and enjoy good quality of life.

India of My Dreams Essay 3 (400 words)

India takes pride in being home to people belonging to different castes, creeds and religions. The country is known for its rich culture and unity in diversity. It has also seen a boom in various industries over the past few decades. However, we still have a long way to go. Here are some of the areas that we need to work on in order to make it an ideal nation:

  1. Poverty

There is a lot of economic disparity in the country. The rich here are becoming richer and the poor are becoming poorer by the day. I dream of India where wealth is equally distributed among the citizens.

  1. Education

Lack of education is one of the main hindrances in the growth of the nation. The government is making efforts to spread awareness about the importance of education. However, it should also take steps to ensure that each and every person in the country seeks education.

  1. Employment

There is a lack of good employment opportunities in the country. Even those who are well-qualified fail to get deserving jobs. The dissatisfaction level among the unemployed lot is high and they often take the road to crime. I dream of India that provides equal employment opportunities for all so that each one of us works for the growth and betterment of our country.

  1. Casteism

Casteism is another major issue that needs to be worked upon. India of my dreams would be a place where people are not discriminated based on their caste, creed or religion.

  1. Gender Discrimination

India of my dreams would be a place where women are given due respect and treated as being equal to men. It would be a place where women safety would be of utmost importance.

  1. Corruption

I dream of India as being a place free of corruption. It would be a place where the political leaders would be dedicated towards serving the countries rather than fulfilling their own selfish motifs.

  1. Technological Growth

India has seen a rapid growth in the field of technology. I want it to grow at an even greater pace and attain newer heights to make its place among the first-rate countries.


I dream of India where people of different castes, creeds, religions, ethnic groups and economic/ social status live in perfect harmony with each other. There should be a fair play and government must ensure equal employment opportunities for all its citizens.

India of My Dreams Essay 4 (500 words)

India of my dreams would be a country where freedom of equality is enjoyed in its true sense. It would be a place where no discrimination is done on the basis of a person’s caste, creed, religion or social/economic status. I also dream of it as a place that sees abundance of industrial and technological growth. Here are some of the areas that particularly require attention:

Women Empowerment

Though more and more women are stepping out of their homes and making a mark in different fields there is still a lot of discrimination against women in our country. From female foeticide to restricting women to household tasks, there are a lot of areas that need to be worked upon. Many non-profit organizations have come forward to promote women empowerment. However, we still have to work a lot on changing the mindset of the society. I dream of India that sees women as an asset not a liability. I want it to be a place where men and women are treated as equals.


Though the government of India is making efforts to promote the significance of seeking education, many people in the country still don’t realize its importance. India of my dreams would be a place where education is made mandatory for all. The government must go a step further to ensure that no child in the country is devoid of education.

Employment Opportunities

Many qualified youths in the country fail to get good employment opportunities. The opportunities are either limited or do not pay enough to the deserving candidates. This is mainly because of weak industrial growth. There are certain other factors such as reservation that bar the deserving candidates from getting good opportunity. Many of the youths who fail to get good employment opportunities in India fly abroad and put their minds to work for the economic growth of other countries while others roam around unemployed.

Caste Discrimination

The country is still not completely free of discrimination on the basis of caste, creed and religion. It is sad to see how people belonging to the lower and weaker sections are even denied their basic rights in certain parts of the country. Besides, there are various fundamentalist and separatist groups that provoke people to propagate their religion and talk ill about the others. This often leads to unrest in the country. I dream of India where people are not discriminated based on their caste and religion.


Corruption is one of the main reasons why India is unable to grow at the speed at which it should. Instead of making an effort to serve the country, the political leaders here are busy filling their own pockets. I dream of India where the ministers are dedicated wholly and solely towards the development of the country and its citizens.


India of my dreams would be a country that sees all its citizens as equal and does not discriminate them based on any criteria. I dream of a place where women are respected and are seen equal to men. I also want India to see advancements in the field of science, technology, agriculture and education in the times to come.


India of My Dreams Essay 5 (600 words)

India is a country where people belonging to different ethnic groups, castes and religions live amicably. It boasts of a rich, variegated cultural heritage. Though colonised for a long period of time, India has come a long way ever since its independence. It has seen a huge social and economic growth over the last couple of decades. However, there is a lot of economic and social disparity in the county. People are also looked down upon because of their caste and religious preferences in many parts of the country. India of my dreams would be a place where every citizen enjoys true freedom of equality.

Areas of Improvement

There are a number of areas that our country still needs to work upon in order to grow and develop further. Here is a look at the four key areas that require immediate attention:

  1. Education

Education is the building block for any nation. One of the major drawbacks in our country is that people still do not recognize the importance of education. Those living in poverty or below poverty line particularly overlook the importance of getting educated. They do not realise that lack of education is one of the main factors responsible for their poverty. The Government is taking steps to ensure that more and more people have access to education by way of promoting the right of free and compulsory education for children and also by opening adult education schools. India of my dreams would be a place where every citizen is educated and skilled.

  1. Gender Discrimination

Gender discrimination is another issue that needs to be worked upon. While women are becoming aware of their rights and are doing well in various fields, they still have to fight a number of odds in order to make their place in the society. The birth of a girl child is still considered a curse in many parts of the country. Girls are not encouraged to go for higher studies. Even those who are well-qualified are expected to look after their family post marriage rather than working outside. At work, the wages paid to women are lesser than that paid to the men and the list of discrimination goes on. I dream of India that is devoid of discrimination against women.

  1. Technological Advancement

While India has seen a lot of growth and advancement in the field of science and technology, it still requires working harder in this sphere. It is sad to see how genius minds from the country fly abroad to seek employment opportunities and contribute to the technological and industrial advancements of those countries rather than contributing to the development of their own country. I dream of India that offers good employment opportunities to deserving individuals and together all work towards the further technological advancement of the country.

  1. Crime Rate

The crime rate in India is growing by the day. Numerous cases of rape, robbery, dowry and murder are reported each day and many others go unnoticed/unreported. Lack of education, unemployment and poverty majorly attribute towards this. India of my dreams would be a country where the government is more sensitive towards the safety and security of the people. It would be a place free from all kinds of crime and exploitation.


India has seen a rapid industrial growth, technological advancement and progress in several other fields over the last few decades. However, there is still a lot of scope for improvement. India was once called the golden sparrow because of the prosperity it enjoyed. I want the country to attain that glory yet again. I do not want it to enjoy just economic richness but also become richer culturally and socially. All the citizens of the country must be treated equally and there should be no discrimination or injustice.


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