George Steiner, Language and Silence: Essays on Language, Literature, and the Inhuman (New York: Atheneum, 1967).
Robert S. Leventhal
The Cambridge University Literary Critic George Steiner published Language and Silence in 1967, a book that in a sense develops an entire poetics around what he refers to as the demolition or destruction of language in light of the historical atrocities of the 20th century, most notably the Nazi Genocide of the Jews. In his essay on Kafka entitled "K" in Language and Silence,, Steiner stated: "The world of Auschwitz lies outside speech as it lies outside reason. To speak of the unspeakable is to risk the survivance of language as creator and bearer of humane, rational truth. Words that are saturated with lies or atrocity do not easily resume life." (123) According to Steiner, Auschwitz and the atrocities of the Third Reich are literally unspeakable, they cannot be adequately expressed or communicated in language for two reasons. First, because of the misuse of language in the Nazi regime, language, and particularly the German language, has suffered a destruction so total that it cannot resume its previous function as the vessel of humane rationality and truth. Secondly, the atrocities committed by the Nazi regime were of such a nature that they transcend any words we could use to characterize them. Their barbarity goes beyond the referential and representational capacity of language. In an essay contained in the same volume, "The Retreat from the Word," Steiner urges us to follow oriental metaphysics and Wittgenstein and consider silence as a response to the ineffable. And in "Silence and the Poet," Steiner considers poetic modernity as an attempt to enact or "show" the limits of the expressable, the threshold of meaning, by allowing the silence of language, where language can only express its inadequacy, to emerge as such. In "The Hollow Miracle," Steiner stated: "Everything forgets. But not language. When it has been injected with falsehood, only the most drastic truth can cleanse it. Instead, the post-war history of the German language has been one of dissimulation and deliberate forgetting." (109) Or, in one of the most powerful and disturbing statements of the book, Steiner stated: "Languages have great reserves of life. They can absorb masses of hysteria, illiteracy and cheapness [...] But there comes a breaking point. Use a language to conceive, organize, and justify Belsen; use it to make out specifications for gas ovens; use it to dehumanize man during twelve years of calculated bestiality. Something will happen to it. [...] Something will happen to the words. Something of the lies and sadism will settle in the marrow of the language. Imperceptibly at first, like the poisons of radiation sifting silently into the bone. But the cancer will begin, and the deep-set destruction. The language will no longer grow and freshen. It will no longer perform, quite as well as it used to, its two principal functions: the conveyance of humane order which we call law, and the communication of the quick of the human spirit which we call grace." (101)
Steiner has been taken to task by a number of different historians and critics on a number of different issues. First, perhaps most notably, Saul Friedländer has claimed that Steiner's remarks are imprecise, that one must distinguish between, say, the demolition of the German language and the demolition of language in general. Furthermore, Friedländer has insisted that to reduce Auschwitz to silence is to participate in another dissimulation and erasure of history. Against "silence," Friedländer has consistently argued for a self-reflective discourse and psycho-analysis of the very ways in which denial, displacement, and disavowal occur in our various "discourses." On this, see Friedländer's Reflections of Nazism: An Essay on Kitsch and Death.
Another extremely important criticism is directed against the "rhetoric of silence" itself. To assert that "Auschwitz lies outside of speech as it lies outside of reason" is, for many, to simply relegate the Holocaust to oblivion, to rob it of any articulation and thereby to continue, by other means, what the Nazis sought to do in the first place: to erase, wipe out, obliterate the Jewish idiom. Thus, Sander Gilman has argued in his book Jewish Self-Hatred that the task of Holocaust literature is to register, and then to overcome silence, as is accomplished in Jerzy Kosinski's The Painted Bird or, more recently, in Claude Lanzmann's Shoah. For more on this reading of the "return of the voice" and the interruption of silence as a possible counter against Steiner, see Shoshana Felman and Dorie Laub's reading of Lanzmann's Shoah in Testimony: Psychoanalysis, Literature, History.
Steiner's discourse can be characterized as a discourse of mourning, in which the critic mourns the death of language. The language in question, however, is principally German, and it can be questioned whether this is the proper focus of mourning, i.e. whether, in light of the destruction of the language of those who suffered, this task of mourning should not be directed at the loss of the languages of the European Jews themselves and not the perpetrators.
Click on one of the following:
George Steiner speaking at The Nexus Institute, The Netherlands, 2013
|Born||Francis George Steiner|
(1929-04-23) April 23, 1929 (age 88)
|Occupation||Author, essayist, literary critic, professor|
|Genre||History, literature, literary fiction|
|Notable works||After Babel (1975)|
|Notable awards||The Truman Capote Lifetime Achievement Award (1998)|
|Spouse||Zara Shakow Steiner|
Francis George Steiner,FBA (born April 23, 1929) is a French-born American literary critic, essayist, philosopher, novelist, and educator. He has written extensively about the relationship between language, literature and society, and the impact of the Holocaust. An article in The Guardian described Steiner as a "polyglot and polymath", saying that he is either "often credited with recasting the role of the critic", or a "pretentious namedropper" whose "range comes at the price of inaccuracy" and "complacency".
Among his admirers, Steiner is ranked "among the great minds in today's literary world." English novelist A. S. Byatt described him as a "late, late, late Renaissance man ... a European metaphysician with an instinct for the driving ideas of our time." Harriet Harvey-Wood, a former literature director of the British Council, described him as a "magnificent lecturer – prophetic and doom-laden [who would] turn up with half a page of scribbled notes, and never refer to them."
Steiner was Professor of English and Comparative Literature at the University of Geneva (1974–94), Professor of Comparative Literature and Fellow at the University of Oxford (1994–95) and Professor of Poetry at Harvard University (2001–02).
He lives in Cambridge, England, where he has been Extraordinary Fellow at Churchill College at the University of Cambridge since 1969. He is married to author and historian Zara Shakow Steiner; they have a son, David Steiner (who served as New York State's Commissioner of Education from 2009 to 2011) and a daughter, Deborah Steiner (Professor of Classics at Columbia University).
George Steiner was born in 1929 in Paris, to Viennese Jewish parents Dr Frederick George Steiner and Mrs Else Steiner (née Franzos). He has an older sister, Ruth Lilian, who was born in Vienna in 1922. Frederick Steiner was a senior lawyer in the Austrian Central Bank, and Else Steiner was a Viennese grande dame. Five years before George Steiner's birth, his father had moved his family from Austria to France to escape the growing threat of Nazism. He believed that Jews were "endangered guests wherever they went" and equipped his children with languages. Steiner grew up with three mother tongues: German, English, and French; his mother was multilingual and would often "begin a sentence in one language and end it in another." When he was six years old, his father, who believed in a good classical education, taught him to read the Iliad, Homer's epic poem, in the original Greek. His mother, for whom "self-pity was nauseating", helped Steiner overcome a handicap he had been born with, a withered right arm. Instead of allowing him to become left-handed, she insisted he use his right hand as an able-bodied person would.
Steiner's first formal education took place at the Lycée Janson-de-Sailly in Paris. In 1940, during World War II, Steiner's father once again relocated his family, this time to New York City. Within a month of their move, the Nazis occupied Paris, and of the many Jewish children in Steiner's class at school, he was one of only two who survived the war. Again his father's insight had saved his family, and this made Steiner feel like a survivor, which profoundly influenced his later writings. "My whole life has been about death, remembering and the Holocaust." Steiner became a "grateful wanderer", saying that "Trees have roots and I have legs; I owe my life to that." He spent the rest of his school years at the Lycée Français de New York in Manhattan, and became a United States citizen in 1944.
After high school, Steiner went to the University of Chicago, where he studied literature as well as mathematics and physics, and obtained a BA degree in 1948. This was followed by an MA degree from Harvard University in 1950. He then attended Balliol College at the University of Oxford in England on a Rhodes Scholarship. After his doctoralthesis at Oxford, a draft of The Death of Tragedy (later published by Faber and Faber), was initially rejected, Steiner took time off from his studies to teach English at Williams College and to work as leader writer for the London-based weekly publication The Economist between 1952 and 1956. It was during this time that he met Zara Shakow, a New Yorker of Lithuanian descent. She had also studied at Harvard, and they met in London at the suggestion of their former professors. "The professors had had a bet...that we would get married if we ever met." They married in 1955, the year he received his PhD from Oxford University.
In 1956 Steiner returned to the United States, where for two years he was a scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. He also held a Fulbright professorship in Innsbruck, Austria from 1958 to 1959. In 1959, he was appointed Gauss Lecturer at Princeton, where he lectured for another two years. He then became a founding fellow of Churchill College at the University of Cambridge in 1961. Steiner was initially not well received at Cambridge by the English faculty. Many disapproved of this charismatic "firebrand with a foreign accent" and questioned the relevance of the Holocaust he constantly referred to in his lectures. Bryan Cheyette, professor of 20th-century literature at the University of Southampton said that at the time, "Britain [...] didn't think it had a relationship to the Holocaust; its mythology of the war was rooted in the Blitz, Dunkirk, the Battle of Britain." While Steiner received a professorial salary, he was never made a full professor at Cambridge with the right to examine. He had the option of leaving for professorships in the United States, but Steiner's father objected, saying that Hitler, who said no one bearing their name would be left in Europe, would then have won. Steiner remained in England because "I'd do anything rather than face such contempt from my father." He was elected an Extraordinary Fellow at Cambridge in 1969.
After several years as a freelance writer and occasional lecturer, Steiner accepted the post of Professor of English and Comparative Literature at the University of Geneva in 1974; he held this post for 20 years, teaching in four languages. He lived by Goethe's maxim that "no monoglot truly knows his own language." He became Professor Emeritus at Geneva University on his retirement in 1994, and an Honorary Fellow at Balliol College at Oxford University in 1995. He has since held the positions of the first Lord Weidenfeld Professor of Comparative European Literature and Fellow of St Anne's College at Oxford University from 1994 to 1995, and Norton Professor of Poetry at Harvard University from 2001 to 2002.
Steiner has been called "an intelligent and intellectual critic and essayist." He was active on undergraduate publications while at the University of Chicago and later become a regular contributor of reviews and articles to many journals and newspapers including the Times Literary Supplement and The Guardian. He has written for The New Yorker for over thirty years, contributing over two hundred reviews.
While Steiner generally takes things very seriously, he also reveals an unexpected deadpan humor: when he was once asked if he had ever read anything trivial as a child, he replied, Moby-Dick.
George Steiner is regarded as a polymath and often credited with recasting the role of the critic by exploring art and thought unbounded by national frontiers or academic disciplines. He advocates generalisation over specialisation, and insists that the notion of being literate must encompass knowledge of both arts and sciences. Steiner believes that nationalism is too inherently violent to satisfy the moral prerogative of Judaism, saying "that because of what we are, there are things we can't do."
Among Steiner's non-traditional views, in his autobiography titled Errata from 1997, Steiner relates his sympathetic stance towards the use of public houses since his college years at the University of Chicago. As Steiner states, "My virginity offended Alfie (his college room-mate). He found it ostentatious and vaguely corrupt in a nineteen-year-old... He sniffed the fear in me with disdain. And marched me off to Cicero, Illinois, a town justly ill famed but, by virtue of its name, reassuring to me. There he organized, with casual authority, an initiation as thorough as it was gentle. It is this unlikely gentleness, the caring under circumstances so outwardly crass, that blesses me still."
Central to Steiner's thinking, he has stated, "is my astonishment, naïve as it seems to people, that you can use human speech both to love, to build, to forgive, and also to torture, to hate, to destroy and to annihilate."
Steiner received criticism and support for his views that racism was inherent in everyone and that tolerance was only skin deep. He is reported to have said: "It's very easy to sit here, in this room, and say 'racism is horrible'. But ask me the same thing if a Jamaican family moved next door with six children and they play reggae and rock music all day. Or if an estate agent comes to my house and tells me that because a Jamaican family has moved next door the value of my property has fallen through the floor. Ask me then!"
George Steiner's career spans half a century. He has published original essays and books that address the anomalies of contemporary Western culture, issues of language and its "debasement" in the post-Holocaust age. His field is primarily comparative literature, and his work as a critic has tended toward exploring cultural and philosophical issues, particularly dealing with translation and the nature of language and literature.
Steiner's first published book was Tolstoy or Dostoevsky: An Essay in Contrast (1960), which was a study of the different ideas and ideologies of the Russian writers Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevsky. The Death of Tragedy (1961) originated as his doctoralthesis at the University of Oxford and examined literature from the ancient Greeks to the mid-20th century. His best-known book, After Babel (1975), was an early and influential contribution to the field of translation studies. It was adapted for television in 1977 as The Tongues of Men and was the inspiration behind the creation in 1983 of the English avant-rockgroupNews from Babel.
Several works of literary fiction by Steiner include four short story collections, Anno Domini: Three Stories (1964), Proofs and Three Parables (1992), The Deeps of the Sea (1996), and A cinq heures de l'après-midi (2008); and his controversialnovella, The Portage to San Cristobal of A.H. (1981). Portage to San Cristobal, in which JewishNazi hunters find Adolf Hitler (the "A.H." of the novella's title) alive in the Amazon jungle thirty years after the end of World War II, explored ideas about the origins of European anti-semitism first expounded by Steiner in his 1971 critical work In Bluebeard's Castle. Steiner has suggested that Nazism was Europe's revenge on the Jews for inventing conscience. Cheyette sees Steiner's fiction as "an exploratory space where he can think against himself." It "contrasts its humility and openness with his increasingly closed and orthodox critical work." Central to it is the survivor's "terrible, masochistic envy about not being there – having missed the rendezvous with hell".
No Passion Spent (1996) is a collection of essays on topics as diverse as Kierkegaard, Homer in translation, Biblical texts, and Freud's dream theory. Errata: An Examined Life (1997) is a semi-autobiography, and Grammars of Creation (2001), based on Steiner's 1990 Gifford Lectures delivered at the University of Glasgow, explores a range of subjects from cosmology to poetry.
Awards and honors
George Steiner has received many honors, including:
He has also won numerous awards for his fiction and poetry, including:
- Remembrance Award (1974) for Language and Silence: Essays 1958-1966.
- PEN/Macmillan Silver Pen Award (1992) for Proofs and Three Parables.
- PEN/Macmillan Fiction Prize (1993) for Proofs and Three Parables.
- JQ Wingate Prize for Non-Fiction (joint winner with Louise Kehoe and Silvia Rodgers) (1997) for No Passion Spent.
Main article: George Steiner bibliography
- ^ abcd"The Papers of George Steiner". Janus. Retrieved March 26, 2008.
- ^ abcdefHahn, Daniel. "George Steiner". Contemporary Writers in the UK. Archived from the original on October 1, 2007. Retrieved March 26, 2008.
- ^Cheyette, Bryan (February 1, 2008). "My Unwritten Books by George Steiner". The Independent. London. Retrieved March 26, 2008.
- ^Murphy, Rex. "ERRATA: An Examined Life by George Steiner". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, January 3, 1998. Archived from the original on January 24, 2008. Retrieved March 26, 2008.
- ^Cheyette, Bryan. "Between Repulsion and Attraction: George Steiner's Post-Holocaust Fiction". Jewish Social Studies. Retrieved March 26, 2008.
- ^ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvJaggi, Maya (March 17, 2001). "George and his dragons". The Guardian. London. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
- ^Steiner, George. "Büchner lives on". The Times Literary Supplement, December 13, 2006. London. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
- ^Baker, Kenneth (April 12, 1998). "Steiner's Memoir a Sketchy Mix of Reminiscence and Complaint". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
- ^"Errata: An Examined Life". University of Chicago Magazine. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
- ^Cowley, Jason (September 22, 1997). "A traveller in the realm of the mind". The Times. Archived from the original on August 11, 2007. Retrieved March 27, 2008.
- ^"The Weidenfeld Chair in Comparative European Literature". St Anne's College, Oxford. Archived from the original on December 30, 2013. Retrieved December 28, 2013.
- ^ ab"Grammars of Creation"(PDF). National Adult Literacy Database. Archived from the original(PDF) on April 13, 2007. Retrieved March 26, 2008.
- ^Steiner, George (1997). Errata, Yale University Press, 1997, pp. 43-44.
- ^ abSimpson, Aislinn; Salter, Jessica (August 11, 2008). "Cambridge academic says he would not tolerate Jamaican neighbours". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- ^Johns, Lindsay (September 3, 2008). "Out of touch, but not a racist". The Guardian. London.
- ^ ab"Literary Critic George Steiner wins Truman Capote Award". Stanford Online Report. Retrieved March 26, 2008.
- ^Rosenbaum, Ron (March 17, 2002). "Mirroring Evil? No, Mirroring Art Theory". The New York Observer. Retrieved February 28, 2008.
- ^"George Steiner". Prince of Asturias Awards. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved April 8, 2008.
- Averil Condren, Papers of George Steiner, Churchill Archives Centre, 2001
- The Harvard Gazette (27.09.01)
- Quotations related to George Steiner at Wikiquote
- Ronald A. Sharp (Winter 1995). "George Steiner, The Art of Criticism No. 2". The Paris Review.
- George Steiner at ContemporaryWriters.com.
- George and his dragons. The Guardian, March 17, 2001.
- A traveller in the realm of the mind. Interview with George Steiner, The Times, September 22, 1997.
- Grammars of Creation. Full text of Steiner's 2001 lecture.
- "Between Repulsion and Attraction: George Steiner's Post-Holocaust Fiction". Jewish Social Studies, 1999.
- "George Steiner’s Jewish Problem". Azure: Ideas for the Jewish Nation.
- George Steiner on IMDb
- (in French)About George Steiner, by Juan Asensio, L'Harmattan, 2001
- George Steiner bibliography. Fantastic Fiction
- George Steiner in Literal - features an essay by Steiner
- George Steiner interviewed by Alan Macfarlane 23rd July 2007 (film)
- George Steiner interviewed by Alan Macfarlane July 2007 (2 films)
- Audio: George Steiner in conversation on the BBC World Service discussion showThe Forum.
- Biography and summary of Gifford Lectures by Dr Brannon Hancock