The Two Cultures is the first part of an influential 1959 Rede Lecture by British scientist and novelist C. P. Snow. Its thesis was that "the intellectual life of the whole of western society" was split into the titular two cultures – namely the sciences and the humanities – and that this was a major hindrance to solving the world's problems.
The talk was delivered 7 May 1959 in the Senate House, Cambridge, and subsequently published as The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution. The lecture and book expanded upon an article by Snow published in the New Statesman of 6 October 1956, also entitled The Two Cultures. Published in book form, Snow's lecture was widely read and discussed on both sides of the Atlantic, leading him to write a 1963 follow-up, The Two Cultures: And a Second Look: An Expanded Version of The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution.
Snow's position can be summed up by an often-repeated part of the essay:
A good many times I have been present at gatherings of people who, by the standards of the traditional culture, are thought highly educated and who have with considerable gusto been expressing their incredulity at the illiteracy of scientists. Once or twice I have been provoked and have asked the company how many of them could describe the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The response was cold: it was also negative. Yet I was asking something which is the scientific equivalent of: Have you read a work of Shakespeare's?
I now believe that if I had asked an even simpler question – such as, What do you mean by mass, or acceleration, which is the scientific equivalent of saying, Can you read? – not more than one in ten of the highly educated would have felt that I was speaking the same language. So the great edifice of modern physics goes up, and the majority of the cleverest people in the western world have about as much insight into it as their neolithic ancestors would have had.
In 2008, The Times Literary Supplement included The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution in its list of the 100 books that most influenced Western public discourse since the Second World War.
Snow's Rede Lecture condemned the British educational system as having, since the Victorian era, over-rewarded the humanities (especially Latin and Greek) at the expense of scientific and engineering education, despite such achievements having been so decisive in winning the Second World War for the Allies. This in practice deprived British elites (in politics, administration, and industry) of adequate preparation to manage the modern scientific world. By contrast, Snow said, German and American schools sought to prepare their citizens equally in the sciences and humanities, and better scientific teaching enabled these countries' rulers to compete more effectively in a scientific age. Later discussion of The Two Cultures tended to obscure Snow's initial focus on differences between British systems (of both schooling and social class) and those of competing countries.
Implications and influence
The literary critic F. R. Leavis called Snow a "public relations man" for the scientific establishment in his essay Two Cultures?: The Significance of C. P. Snow, published in The Spectator. The article attracted a great deal of negative correspondence in the magazine's letters pages.
In his 1963 book Snow appeared to revise his thinking and was more optimistic about the potential of a mediating third culture. This concept was later picked up in Brockman, John (1995), The Third Culture: Beyond the Scientific Revolution . Introducing the reprinted The Two Cultures, 1993 , Stefan Collini has argued that the passage of time has done much to reduce the cultural divide Snow noticed, but has not removed it entirely.
Stephen Jay Gould's The Hedgehog, the Fox, and the Magister's Pox provides a different perspective. Assuming the dialectical interpretation, it argues that Snow's concept of "two cultures" is not only off the mark, it is a damaging and short-sighted viewpoint, and that it has perhaps led to decades of unnecessary fence-building.
Simon Critchley, in Continental Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction suggests:
[Snow] diagnosed the loss of a common culture and the emergence of two distinct cultures: those represented by scientists on the one hand and those Snow termed 'literary intellectuals' on the other. If the former are in favour of social reform and progress through science, technology and industry, then intellectuals are what Snow terms 'natural Luddites' in their understanding of and sympathy for advanced industrial society. In Mill's terms, the division is between Benthamites and Coleridgeans.
— Simon Critchley
That is, Critchley argues that what Snow said represents a resurfacing of a discussion current in the mid-nineteenth century. Critchley describes the Leavis contribution to the making of a controversy as "a vicious ad hominem attack"; going on to describe the debate as "a familiar clash in English cultural history" citing also T. H. Huxley and Matthew Arnold.
In his opening address at the Munich Security Conference in January 2014, the Estonian president Toomas Hendrik Ilves said that the current problems related to security and freedom in cyberspace are the culmination of absence of dialogue between "the two cultures": "Today, bereft of understanding of fundamental issues and writings in the development of liberal democracy, computer geeks devise ever better ways to track people... simply because they can and it's cool. Humanists on the other hand do not understand the underlying technology and are convinced, for example, that tracking meta-data means the government reads their emails."
Contrasting scientific and humanistic knowledge is a repetition of the Methodenstreit of 1890 German universities. In the social sciences it is also commonly proposed as the quarrel of positivism versus interpretivism.
- ^Snow, Charles Percy (2001) . The Two Cultures. London: Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-521-45730-0.
- ^ ab"The hundred most influential books since the war". The Times. London. 30 December 2008.
- ^Snow, Charles Percy (1963). The Two Cultures: And a Second Look: An Expanded Version of The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution. Cambridge University Press.
- ^ ab"Across the Great Divide". Nature Physics. 5: 309. 2009. doi:10.1038/nphys1258.
- ^ abJardine, Lisa (2010). "CP Snow's Two Cultures Revisited"(PDF). Christ's College Magazine: 48–57. Archived from the original(PDF) on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2012. Jardine's 2009 C. P. Snow Lecture honored the 50th anniversary of Snow's Rede Lecture. She places Snow's lecture into its historical context, and emphasizes the expansion of certain elements of the Rede Lecture in Snow's Godkin Lectures at Harvard University in 1960. These were ultimately published as Science and Government. New American Library. 1962.
- ^Kimball, Roger (12 February 1994). "The Two Cultures' today: On the C. P. Snow–F. R. Leavis controversy". The New Criterion.
- ^Ilves, Toomas Hendrik: "Rebooting Trust? Freedom vs Security in Cyberspace" Opening address at Munich Security Conference Cyber 31 January 2014. 31.01.2014.
- ^ abBrint, Steven G (2002), The Future of the City of Intellect: The Changing American University, pp. 212–3,
- Bragg, Melvyn, The Two Cultures (discussion), UK: BBC Radio 4 .
- Critchley, Simon (2001), Continental Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-285359-2 .
- Collini, Stefan (1993), "Introduction", in Snow, Charles Percy, The Two Cultures, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-06520-7
- Ferris, Timothy (13 October 2011), "The World of the Intellectual vs. The World of the Engineer", Wired .
- Griffiths, Phillip (13 September 1995), 'Two Cultures' Today, UK: St Andrews .
- Precht, Richard David (2013), "Natural Sciences and Humanities: Genesis of two Worlds", ZAKlessons(Webvideo), Google You tube .
- Snow, Charles Percy (Jan 2013), "The Two cultures", The New Statesman .
- "Are We Beyond the Two Cultures?", Seed, 7 May 2009 .
The Top 40 Outstanding Classification and Division Essay Topics
Classification and division essays usually divide objects or events into several groups according to a certain principle. You can divide almost everything that you want. However, for an academic paper, you should keep in mind that your classification should make sense and your its principle should be applicable to all objects of study. It is important to pick a good topic, consider similarities and differences between chosen objects, and determine a classification principle for them. The top 40 outstanding classification and division essay topics provided below are selected in order to help you come up with your own:
- Classification of social network users.
- The most popular YouTube videos: trailers, short funny videos, promotional materials, learning material, and the like.
- What type of users chooses certain search engines.
- Computer users versus tablet and smartphone users.
- The most popular pets in different countries: cats, dogs, snakes, hamsters, rats, spiders, etc.
- Accommodation options for students under a limited budget: rent a flat, dormitory, and staying with relatives.
- The main types of friends that we have.
- Types of roommates.
- The most popular songs and singers.
- Different movie endings.
- Extracurricular activities: common, unusual, and unexpected.
- Why women (men) refuse to get married.
- Parenting styles.
- Types of lectures.
- Students’ performance during a class workshop.
- Types of tourists: incentive, health, business, cultural, leisure, sport, and special interest.
- The best kinds of vacation.
- Kinds of first dates that individuals often have.
- What communication strategies people use trying to resolve conflicts in office.
- Christmas gifts: cards, small things, toys, and expensive presents.
- Halloween costumes.
- Types of diets: how individuals keep fit.
- Ways of losing weight.
- Strategies to quit smoking.
- Ways to spend holidays.
- Types of house décor.
- Habits and traditions.
- International conferences and forums.
- Popular ways to reduce stress.
- Motivation types.
- How to remember things effectively.
- Conflicting situations: how people usually behave.
- Sources of energy: traditional and alternative sources.
- Types of debates.
- What people prefer drinking: coffee, tea, milk, soda, etc.
- Environmental management strategies: mitigation and adaptation.
- Political parties.
- What influences people’s choices when they are shopping online.
- How people respond to jokes.
- Study resources on the Web: online study platforms, university and library resources, educational websites, educational blogs, online encyclopedias, etc.