Holocaust Museum Experience Essays

Primary Sources  « top »

Essays

  • Abrahamson, Irving, editor. Against Silence: The Voice and Vision of Elie Wiesel. New York: Holocaust Library, 1985. (DS 135 .E83 W54 1985) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Three-volume collection of essays covering Wiesel’s career.

  • After the Darkness: Reflections on the Holocaust. New York: Schocken Books, 2002. (D 804.3 .W465 2002) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • From the Kingdom of Memory: Reminiscences. New York: Summit Books, 1990. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z464 1990) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • A Jew Today. New York: Random House, 1978. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z51713 1978) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • A Journey of Faith. With John Cardinal O’Connor. New York: Donald I. Fine, 1990. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z465 1990) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • Legends of Our Time. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1968. (PQ 2683 .I32 C42 1968) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • One Generation After. New York: Random House, 1970. (PQ 2683 .I32 E513 1970) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • The Six Days of Destruction: Meditations Toward Hope. With Albert Friedlander. Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1988. (PQ 2683 .I32 S5 1988) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • Memoirs

  • All Rivers Run to the Sea: Memoirs. New York: Schocken Books, 1996. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z52313 1996) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • And the Sea is Never Full: Memoirs. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z52313 1999) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • Night. New York: Avon Books, 1969. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z479 1969) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • Night. New translation. New York: Hill and Wang, 2006. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z47813 2006) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • Open Heart. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2012. (PQ 2683.I32 Z4612 2012) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • Fiction

  • A Beggar in Jerusalem: A Novel. New York: Schocken Books, 1985. (PQ 2683 .I32 M413 1985) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • The Fifth Son. New York: Schocken Books, 1998. (PQ 2683 .I32 C613 1998) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • The Forgotten. New York: Summit Books, 1992. (PQ 2683 .I32 O9213 1992) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • The Gates of the Forest. New York: Schocken Books, 1982. (PQ 2683 .I32 P613 1982) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • The Judges: A Novel. New York: Knopf, 2002. (PQ 2683 .I32 J4413 2002) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • A Mad Desire to Dance: A Novel. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2009. (PQ 2683.I32 D4713 2009) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • Night, Dawn, The Accident: A Trilogy. New York: Hill and Wang, 2004. (PQ 2683 .I32 A2 2004) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Presents Wiesel’s memoir of the Holocaust, Night, alongside two works of fiction.

  • The Oath. New York: Random House, 1973. (PQ 2683 .I32 S413 1973) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • The Sonderberg Case: A Novel. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010. (PQ 2683.I32 C3713 2010) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • The Testament: A Novel. New York: Summit Books, 1981. (PQ 2683.I32 T413 1981) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • The Time of the Uprooted: A Novel. New York: Knopf, 2005. (PQ 2683 .I32 T3613 2005) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • The Town Beyond the Wall. New York: Schocken Books, 1982. (PQ 2683 .I32 V513 1982) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • The Trial of God (as it was held on February 25, 1649, in Shamgorod): A Play in Three Acts. New York: Random House, 1979. (PQ 2683.I32 P7613 1979) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • Twilight. New York: Warner Books, 1989. (PQ 2683 .I32 C7413 1989) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • Zalmen, or, the Madness of God: A Play. New York: Random House, 1974. (PQ 2683.I32 Z25 1974) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • Critical Responses and Interviews  « top »

  • Bloom, Harold, editor. Elie Wiesel’s Night. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2001. (PQ 2683 .I32 N8534 2001) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Anthology of scholarly essays exploring Wiesel’s most famous work. Part of the Modern Critical Interpretations series.

  • Brown, Robert McAfee. Elie Wiesel, Messenger to All Humanity. South Bend, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1989. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z59 1989) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Analysis of Wiesel’s spiritual writings by a noted Protestant theologian. Includes extensively annotated bibliography of Wiesel’s works.

  • Cargas, Harry J. Harry James Cargas in Conversation with Elie Wiesel. New York: Paulist Press, 1976. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z6 1976) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Wiesel reflects upon his life and work through responses to a series of questions.

  • Cargas, Harry J. Responses to Elie Wiesel: Critical Essays by Major Jewish and Christian Scholars. New York: Persea Books, 1978. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z85 1978) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Essays by scholars and literary critics responding to Wiesel’s early works, with a particular emphasis on the theological implications of his writings.

  • Cargas, Harry J., editor. Telling the Tale: A Tribute to Elie Wiesel on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday. Saint Louis: Time Being Books, 1993. (PQ 36 .W54 T45 1993) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Collection of essays and poems by Wiesel’s friends and fellow scholars. Includes an interview with Wiesel and capsule biographies of each of the contributors.

  • Franciosi, Robert, editor. Elie Wiesel: Conversations. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2002. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z48 2002) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Compiles twenty-two previously published interviews with Wiesel, covering a range of subjects. Includes a chronology of Wiesel’s life and work.

  • Greenberg, Irving, and Alvin H. Rosenfeld, editors. Confronting the Holocaust: The Impact of Elie Wiesel. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z65 1978) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Anthology of essays that explore Wiesel’s place in the canon of Jewish and Holocaust literature. Contains a bibliography of Wiesel’s works.

  • Horowitz, Rosemary, editor. Elie Wiesel and the Art of Storytelling. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 2006. (PQ 2683 I32 Z658 2006) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Collection of essays by various scholars and literary critics analyzing Elie Wiesel’s place in Jewish storytelling traditions and the myriad of influences on his novels, memoirs, and essays.

  • Kolbert, Jack. The Worlds of Elie Wiesel: An Overview of His Career and His Major Themes. Selinsgrove, Penn.: Susquehanna University Press. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z695 2001) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Overview and analysis of Wiesel’s major works, with an emphasis on the general themes that have dominated his writings. Includes a select bibliography of primary and secondary sources.

  • Rittner, Carol Ann, editor. Elie Wiesel: Between Memory and Hope. New York: New York University Press, 1990. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z66 1990) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Collection of essays that explore the literary and theological themes that run throughout Wiesel’s writings.

  • Rosen, Alan. “Elie Wiesel.” In Holocaust Literature: An Encyclopedia of Writers and their Work, pp. 1315-1325. S. Lillian Kremer, editor. New York: Routledge, 2003. (Reference PN 56.H55 H66 2003) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Provides an overview of Wiesel’s life and work, and critical responses to his writings. Includes an extensive bibliography.

  • Saint-Cheron, Michaël de. Evil and Exile. 2nd ed. South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z46313 2000) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Explores various themes—such as the presence of evil, Judeo-Christian relations, and the responsibility of bystanders in a time of genocide—through a series of interviews between Wiesel and Saint-Cheron, a French journalist and archivist. Includes two interviews not published in the previous edition.

  • Schuster, Ekkehard, and Reinhold Boschert-Kimmig. Hope Against Hope: Johann Baptist Metz and Elie Wiesel Speak Out on the Holocaust. New York: Paulist Press, 1999. (BV 4638 .S3413 1999) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Dual biography of Wiesel and Metz, a German Christian theologian, both of whom experienced World War II and the Holocaust as life-shattering events. Presents extensive interviews with both men.

  • Vinciguerra, Thomas J, editor. Conversations with Elie Wiesel. New York: Schocken Books, 2001. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z4618 2001) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Distills a series of television interviews between Wiesel and Richard D. Heffner into eleven chapters, each exploring a particular aspect of Wiesel’s work.

  • Resources for Teachers  « top »

  • Hernandez, Alexander Al. “Telling the Tale: Sharing Elie Wiesel’s “Night” with Middle School Readers.” (external link) The English Journal. Vol. 91, no. 2 (2001): pp. 54-60. (Subject file) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • Hogue, David R. Night: Curriculum Unit. Rocky River, Ohio: Center for Learning, 1993. (D 804.33 .H64 1993) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Includes twelve lesson plans and 28 handouts designed for grades 7-12.

  • Mahle, Benj. “Junior High/Middle School: The Power of Ambiguity: Elie Wiesel’s ‘Night’.” (external link) The English Journal. Vol. 74, no. 6 (1985): pp. 83-84. (Subject file) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • Rosen, Alan C., ed.  Approaches to Teaching Wiesel's Night. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2007. (D 804.33 .A65 2007) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Contains seventeen essays on various discipline-specific aspects of teaching Night in three settings: historical and cultural contexts, literary contexts, and courses and classroom strategies.  Includes an index, list of works cited, and suggestions of other resources{do you mean "suggestions for further reading"?}.  Part of the Modern Language Association’s  Approaches to Teaching World Literature series.

  • Totten, Samuel. “Entering the ‘Night’ of the Holocaust: Studying Elie Wiesel’s Night.” In Teaching Holocaust Literature, edited by Samuel Totten. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2001: pp. 215-242. (PN 56 .H55 T43 2001) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Presents an approach to teaching Night at the high school level that involves a pre-assessment followed by reader response and historical/interpretive analyses.

  • Weissman, Gary. “Questioning Key Texts: A Pedagogical Approach to Teaching Elie Wiesel’s Night.” In Teaching the Representation of the Holocaust, edited by Marianne Hirsch and Irene Kacandes. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2004: pp. 324-336. (PN 56.H55 T44 2004) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

  • Resources for Students  « top »

  • Bayer, Linda N. Elie Wiesel: Spokesman for Remembrance. New York: Rosen Pub. Group, 2000. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z56 2000) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Biography and guide to Wiesel’s works. Intended for students grades 7-9.

  • Houghton, Sarah. Elie Wiesel: A Holocaust Survivor Cries Out for Peace. Bloomington, Minn.: Red Brick Learning, 2004. (DS 135 .R73 W544 2004) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Biography emphasizing Wiesel’s ongoing advocacy for human rights. Intended for teen readers.

  • Koestler-Grack, Rachel. Elie Wiesel: Witness for Humanity. Milwaukee: Gareth Stevens Publishing, 2009. (DS 135 .R73 W5445 2008) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Presents the life and activities of Elie Wiesel. Text includes frequent period photographs and text boxes with historical information. Includes an index, timeline, conversation with Sara Bloomfield, glossary, and a bibliography. Intended for middle-school and high-school audiences.

  • Moore, Lisa. Elie Wiesel: Surviving the Holocaust, Speaking Out Against Genocide. Berkeley Heights, N.J.: Enslow Publishers, 2005. (DS135 .R73 W545 2005) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Describes Wiesel’s continuing work to raise awareness of past and potential acts of genocide around the world. Part of the Holocaust Heroes and Nazi Criminals series. Intended for teen readers.

  • Schuman, Michael A. Elie Wiesel: Voice from the Holocaust. Hillside, N.J.: Enslow Publishers, 1994. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z87 1994) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Intended for teen readers.

  • Stern, Ellen Norman. Elie Wiesel: A Voice for Humanity. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1996. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z879) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Presents an overview of Wiesel’s life and work, including his continuing work on human rights. Intended for teen readers.

  • Sternlicht, Sanford V. Student Companion to Elie Wiesel. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2003. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z885 2003) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Provides background information and critical analysis to help students understand Wiesel’s life and work, including essays on each of his major books.

  • Wagner, Heather Lehr. Elie Wiesel, Messenger for Peace. New York: Chelsea House, 2007. (PQ 2683 .I32 Z926 2007) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Chronicles Wiesel’s life from his childhood in Sighet, and later during the Holocaust, to his postwar writings and political activism. Includes photographs, a chronology, an appendix of his Nobel Prize acceptance speech, endnotes, a bibliography, and an index. Part of the Modern Peacemakers series, this book is written for young readers.

  • Film and Video  « top »

  • Becker, Harold. Sighet, Sighet [videorecording]. Clarksburg, N.J.: Alden Films, 1990. (Video Collection) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Elie Wiesel reflects on the events of the Holocaust in Sighet, Romania, the town where he was born.

  • Elie Wiesel: Witness to the Holocaust [videorecording]. New York: International Merchandising Corporation, 1990. (Video Collection) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    Interview with the author. Includes footage of his acceptance speech for the Nobel Prize.

  • Elie Wiesel Goes Home [videorecording]. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Choices, 2002. (Video Collection) [Find in a library near you (external link)]

    The author returns to the village of his birth and to Auschwitz and Birkenau, where he was a prisoner during World War II.

  • Web Resources  « top »

  • Elie Wiesel: First Person Singular (external link)

    Companion site to the PBS special. Includes information on Wiesel’s life and work, descriptions of life in Sighet before the war, a teacher’s guide, and a fully-annotated bibliography.

  • Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity (external link)

    Founded using Wiesel’s monetary award from the Nobel Prize. Sponsors interdisciplinary conferences on the subjects of hatred and oppression as well as an annual essay contest for college and university students.

  • Holocaust Encyclopedia: Elie Wiesel

    Brief introduction to Wiesel’s life and work, with links to other online resources.

  • Nobel.org: 1986 Peace Prize: Elie Wiesel (external link)

    Presents a brief biography of Elie Wiesel as well as the text of his Nobel Lecture, videos of a 35-minute interview and symposia speech by the laureate, and links to other online resources.

  • Additional Resources  « top »

  • Subject Files

    Ask at the reference desk to see the subject files labeled “Wiesel, Elie, 1928-” for newspaper and periodical articles.

  • Subject Headings

    To search library catalogs or other electronic search tools for materials on the life and works of Elie Wiesel, use the following Library of Congress subject headings to retrieve the most relevant citations:

    • Wiesel, Elie, 1928-
    • Wiesel, Elie, 1928- Criticism and interpretation
  • The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. Holocaust is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire." The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933, believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews, deemed "inferior," were an alien threat to the so-called German racial community.

    During the era of the Holocaust, German authorities also targeted other groups because of their perceived "racial inferiority": Roma (Gypsies), the disabled, and some of the Slavic peoples (Poles, Russians, and others). Other groups were persecuted on political, ideological, and behavioral grounds, among them Communists, Socialists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and homosexuals.

    WHAT WAS THE HOLOCAUST?
     
    In 1933, the Jewish population of Europe stood at over nine million. Most European Jews lived in countries that Nazi Germany would occupy or influence during World War II. By 1945, the Germans and their collaborators killed nearly two out of every three European Jews as part of the "Final Solution," the Nazi policy to murder the Jews of Europe.

    Although Jews, whom the Nazis deemed a priority danger to Germany, were the primary victims of Nazi racism, other victims included some 200,000 Roma (Gypsies). At least 200,000 mentally or physically disabled patients, mainly Germans, living in institutional settings, were murdered in the so-called Euthanasia Program.

    As Nazi tyranny spread across Europe, the Germans and their collaborators persecuted and murdered millions of other people. Between two and three million Soviet prisoners of war were murdered or died of starvation, disease, neglect, or maltreatment. The Germans targeted the non-Jewish Polish intelligentsia for killing, and deported millions of Polish and Soviet civilians for forced labor in Germany or in occupied Poland, where these individuals worked and often died under deplorable conditions.

    From the earliest years of the Nazi regime, German authorities persecuted homosexuals and others whose behavior did not match prescribed social norms. German police officials targeted thousands of political opponents (including Communists, Socialists, and trade unionists) and religious dissidents (such as Jehovah's Witnesses). Many of these individuals died as a result of incarceration and maltreatment.

    ADMINISTRATION OF THE "FINAL SOLUTION"
     
    In the early years of the Nazi regime, the National Socialist government established concentration camps to detain real and imagined political and ideological opponents. Increasingly in the years before the outbreak of war, SS and police officials incarcerated Jews, Roma, and other victims of ethnic and racial hatred in these camps.

    To concentrate and monitor the Jewish population as well as to facilitate later deportation of the Jews, the Germans and their collaborators created ghettos, transit camps, and forced-labor camps for Jews during the war years. The German authorities also established numerous forced-labor camps, both in the so-called Greater German Reich and in German-occupied territory, for non-Jews whose labor the Germans sought to exploit.

    Following the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing units) and, later, militarized battalions of Order Police officials, moved behind German lines to carry out mass-murder operations against Jews, Roma, and Soviet state and Communist Party officials. German SS and police units, supported by units of the Wehrmacht and the Waffen SS, murdered more than a million Jewish men, women, and children, and hundreds of thousands of others.

    Between 1941 and 1944, Nazi German authorities deported millions of Jews from Germany, from occupied territories, and from the countries of many of its Axis allies to ghettos and to killing centers, often called extermination camps, where they were murdered in specially developed gassing facilities.

    THE END OF THE HOLOCAUST
     
    In the final months of the war, SS guards moved camp inmates by train or on forced marches, often called “death marches,” in an attempt to prevent the Allied liberation of large numbers of prisoners. As Allied forces moved across Europe in a series of offensives against Germany, they began to encounter and liberate concentration camp prisoners, as well as prisoners en route by forced march from one camp to another. The marches continued until May 7, 1945, the day the German armed forces surrendered unconditionally to the Allies.

    For the western Allies, World War II officially ended in Europe on the next day, May 8 (V-E Day), while Soviet forces announced their “Victory Day” on May 9, 1945.

    In the aftermath of the Holocaust, many of the survivors found shelter in displaced persons (DP) camps administered by the Allied powers. Between 1948 and 1951, almost 700,000 Jews emigrated to Israel, including 136,000 Jewish displaced persons from Europe. Other Jewish DPs emigrated to the United States and other nations. The last DP camp closed in 1957.

    The crimes committed during the Holocaust devastated most European Jewish communities and eliminated hundreds of Jewish communities in occupied eastern Europe entirely.

    Further Reading

    Bergen, Doris. War & Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003

    Dawidowicz, Lucy S. The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1975.

    Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second World War. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1986.

    Gutman, Israel, editor. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1990.

    Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003.

    Yahil, Leni. The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, 1932-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

    Copyright © United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC

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